Learn Japanese fast! To come across the right way, you need to know when and how to use formal and informal Japanese. Whether you’re talking to a new acquaintance, a friend, an elder, and so on, the person you’re talking to in Japanese makes all the difference, and simple phrases can sound very different. In this Beginner Japanese article, you’ll find a comprehensive review of formal and informal adjective conjugations. See firsthand just how different a sentence as simple as, “It’s not expensive” is based on whether you’re using formal or informal Japanese. The easy charts and plentiful example sentences ensure that you’ll be completely comfortable with the nuances of both formal and informal Japanese.
Vocabulary: In this article, you’ll learn the following words and phrases:
o-baa-chan – “granny, grandma”
riyakaa – “two-wheeled cart”
jinrikisha – “rickshaw”
hayai – “fast, quick” (-i ending adjective)
kimochi – “feeling”
noru – “to ride, to take, to get on” (class 1 verb)
abunai – “dangerous” (-i ending adjective)
anzen (na) – “safe, secure” (-na ending adjective)
soreni – “besides, moreover”
Grammar: In this article, you’ll learn the following words and phrases:
Useful Vocabulary and Phrases
abunai – “dangerous”
People call out Abunai! when someone is in danger. This phrase corresponds to “Look out!” or “Watch out!” in English.
- A, abunai!
“Hey, watch out!”
kimochi ii – “feel good”
- Kimochi (ga) ii – “feel good”
- Kimochi (ga) warui – “feel bad”
omoshiros – “looks interesting”
When an adjective precedes soo, the meaning of “seeming” is added.
- [adjective] + soo = “looks…” / “smells…” / “sounds…,” etc.
For more information see Nihongo Doojoo Beginner Series Season 4 Meet the Parents: Article 7
–i Ending Adjectives:
-i Adjective / Drop –i and Add soo
omoshiroi / omoshirosoo
tanoshii / tanoshisoo
-na Ending Adjectives:
-na Adjective / Drop –na and Add soo
anzen (na)/ anzensoo
benri (na) / benrisoo
ii / yosasoo
Kono keeki, oishisoo.
“This cake looks yummy.”
“That looks comfortable.”
In this article, we are going to learn more about formal and informal speech by reviewing adjective conjugations.
- “It’s not expensive.”
Formal: Takaku arimasen.
As you have learned, there are two types of adjectives in Japanese: -i ending adjectives and -na ending adjectives.
For More Information on:
Basic Usage of Adjectives see Nihongo Doojoo Newbie series Welcome to Style You: Articles 11-15.
Combining Two or More adjectives: see Nihongo Doojoo Newbie series Style You and Beyond: Articles 15 and 16.
Part of Speech / Affirmative / Negative
Verb(class 1) / kikimasu / kikimasen
Adjective(-i ending) / takai desu / takakunai desu, takakuarimasen
Adjective(irregular) / ii desu / yokunai desu, yokuarimasen
Adjective(-na ending) / anzen desu / anzen janai desu, anzen ja arimasen, anzen dewa arimasen
Noun / kuruma desu / kuruma janai desu, kuruma ja arimasen, kuruma dewa arimasen
Part of Speech / Affirmative / Negative
Verb(class 1) / kiku / kikanai
Verb(class 2) / miru / minai
Verb (class 3) / suru / shinai
Verb (class 3) / kuru / konai
Adjective (-i ending) / takai / takakunai
Adjective (irregular) / ii / yokunai
Adjective (-na ending) / anzen desu / anzen janai
Noun / kuruma da / kuruma janai
te Form of Adjectives
We use the te form of adjectives to combine two or more adjectives.
- -i ending adjective: Replace the final –i with –kute
- taka i becomes taka kute
- omoshiro i becomes omoshiro kute
- i i becomes yo kute (irregular)
- -na ending adjective: Add –de to the dictionary form
- anzen becomes anzen de
- benri becomes benri de
Please rewrite the following sentences in their informal forms.
- Watashi wa mainichi ongaku o kikimasu.
- Sore wa hyaku-en desu.
- Doitsu no kuruma wa takai desu.
- Tokyo no chikatetsu wa benri de anzen desu.
Please rewrite the following sentences in their formal forms.
- Ashita, watashi wa gakkoo ni iku.
- Kono keeki wa oishikunai.
- Tokyo wa anzende omoshiroi machi da.
- Nyuuyooku no chikatetsu wa yasukute benri da.